! Situational Leadership Theory, or the Situational Leadership Model, is a model created by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard, developed while working on Management of Organizational Behavior. Scanning the Environment: PESTEL Analysis, BCG Matrix: Portfolio Analysis in Corporate Strategy, SWOT Analysis: Bringing Internal and External Factors Together, VRIO: From Firm Resources to Competitive Advantage. Of these, no one style is considered optimal for all leaders to use all the time. [4], In 1985 Blanchard introduced situational leadership II (SLII) in the book A Situational Approach to Managing People. The leader will therefore only encourage and offer feedback when needed to motivate and develop the subordinate, but not as a comment on the task performance. These theories mainly focus on task requirements, peers’ expectation and behavior, employees’ characteristics, expectations and behavior, organizational culture and policies, etc. The Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership theory suggests that there is a fifth type of leader: one that can adapt their style based on the situation that they encounter. The Hersey-Blanchard Model is also referred to as the Situational Leadership Model or Theory. By this is meant the level of direction provided to the employee. During the mid-1970s, life cycle theory of leadership was renamed "Situational Leadership Theory." Situational Leadership Theory of Hersey-Blanchard Explained The general belief of situational leadership theories is that leaders are products of real situations rather than gifts of nature. The three models are Fielder’s leadership model, House’s path – goal theory of leadership, and Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership model. The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory is one that is based around variable leadership, depending on a variety of circumstances. This is because the leader believes that the follower is capable enough of achieving the required tasks largely independently. Typical behaviour for a S1 leadership style, according to Hersey, is offering step-by-step instructions, clear explanation of the consequences of non-performance and close supervision. Therefore, this theory is also known as the life-cycle theory of leadership. They are able and willing to not only do the task, but to take responsibility for the task. Selling:The leader is still the d… Blanchard views development as a process as the individual moves from developing to developed, in this viewpoint it is still incumbent upon the leader to diagnose development level and then use the appropriate leadership style which can very based on each task, goal, or assignment. And we briefly introduced the Hersey and Blanchard model of Situational Leadership, which is about adapting leadership style according to situation. Maturity and competence of the group are often overlooked factors in good leadership and it helps to focus on these. The article served as a foundation for the future development of Situational Leadership®, as well as the core of what would become the best-selling organizational behavior text of all time: “Management of Organizational Behavior” (M.O.B. The Situational Leadership Model has two fundamental concepts: leadership style and the individual or group's performance readiness level, also referred to as maturity level or development level. Survey data collected from 357 banking employees and 80 supervisors, sampled from 10 Norwegian financial institutions, were analyzed for predicted interactions. Despite its intuitive appeal, several studies do not support the prescriptions offered by situational leadership theory. [2] During the mid-1970s, life cycle theory of leadership was renamed "Situational Leadership Theory. These ‘Disillusioned Learners‘ therefore need a leader with a higher concern for supportive behaviour that helps them gain confidence and become motivated again. Lastly, we have the R4 followers: they are ready, able and willing to perform. In chronological order, the leadership styles rank from least ready (requiring the most amount of direction and support) to most ready (requiring the least amount of direction and support). In their original theory, Blanchard and Hersey (1977) distinguished different styles of leadership and several maturity levels. In others, they may need to be a participating leader. Situational leadership theory talks about four different leadership styles and how it relates to subordinate’s confidence or ability to carry out a task. As followers gain experience they reach development level 2 (D2) and gain some competence, but their commitment drops because the task may be more complex than the follower had originally perceived at the start of the task. New Jersey/Prentice Hall. To Hersey and Blanchard, there leadership styles stem from four basic behaviors, designated with a letter-number combination: 1. The appropriate level of this relationship-focused approach is just like the directive behaviour determined by the readiness or development level of followers. Situational Leadership emerged as one of a related group of two-factor theories of leadership, many of which originated in research done at Ohio State University in the 1960s. This approach to leadership suggests the need to match two key elements appropriately: the leader’s leadership style and the followers’ maturity or preparedness levels. The term “situational leadership” is most commonly derived from and connected with Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory. They can do so by finding the right balance between Directive and Supportive behaviour. With the direction and support of their leader, the individual moves to development level 3 where competence can still be variable—fluctuating between moderate to high knowledge, ability and transferable skills and variable commitment as they continue to gain mastery of the task or role. Situational leadership implies leadership that is influenced by the competence, skill set, and maturity level of the subordinates. A leader’s supportive behaviour reflects the ‘concern for people‘ dimension of Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid. The Hersey–Blanchard situational leadership theory identified four levels of maturity M1 through M4: Maturity levels are also task-specific. Situational leadership is related to contingency theory therein they both view success as a result of matching leadership abilities and style with the situation. These behaviors serve as resistance to group influence and task requirements and can cause performance to drop. Even though Hersey and Blanchard worked together for years to support the notion that leadership styles should be situational, they decided to go separate ways in 1977 to focus on their own agendas. Bruce Tuckman's research in the field of group development, which compiled the results of 50 studies on group development and identified four stages of development: forming, storming, norming, and performing. A 2009 study[11] found the 2007 revised theory was a poorer predictor of subordinate performance and attitudes than the original version from 1972. Blanchard's Situational Leadership II makes some changes to these, relabelling all as development levels rather than maturity levels to avoid stigma around the idea of immaturity, and making some distinctions in M1 and M2, now D1 and D2 in this subsequent version. The four leadership styles that are presented in this theory are Telling, Selling, Participating, and Delegating. Hersey and Blanchard disagreed with academics like Blake and Mouton on the notion that there would be a single best ‘one-size-fits-all’ leadership approach that could be used within organizations. That allows for fires to be put out and morale to be salvaged, but it also creates issues where personal development can be stalled. This theory was first called the “Life Cycle Theory of Leadership.” During the mid-1970s, it was renamed the Situational Leadership® Theory. A leader’s relationship with followers is therefore likely to go through different stages as these abilities and willingness can change over time. Moreover, they are either unwilling to deliver the required task or lack self-confidence. Pro’s The simplicity of the theory makes it easy to apply. The problem, however, is that they are unwilling to do so. Situational Leadership®, once called the Life Cycle Theory, is a business management model created by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard.Blanchard and Hersey's model, which first gained notice in the early 1970s, is based on a contingency leadership style. These two-factor theories hold that possibilities in leadership style are composed of combinations of two main variables: task behavior and relationship behavior. width="25%" align="center" | S1 Life cycle theory of leadership. Situational Leadership Theory is a theory developed by leadership consultants Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard. Kanfer and Ackerman's study of motivation and cognitive abilities and the difference between commitment and confidence, task knowledge and transferable skills. This follower style is often seen with new employees who are keen to impress their supervisor, but still lack the work experience to be productive right from the start. The leader can further encourage autonomy, while keeping an eye on not overloading the follower with responsibility and not withdrawing completely from the follower’s proximity. Individuals lack the specific skills required for the job in hand and they are willing to work at the task. "[6] According to Hersey's book,[6] a leader's high, realistic expectation causes high performance of followers; a leader's low expectations lead to low performance of followers. After being applied, In such a situation, it is important that the task is clearly defined and the stages of the process are easy to follow. Various terms are used to describe these two concepts, such as initiating structure or direction for task behavior and consideration or socioemotional support for relationship behavior. [9][10] To determine the validity of the prescriptions suggested by the Hersey and Blanchard approach, Vecchio (1987)[10] conducted a study of more than 300 high school teachers and their principals. A leader’s primary concern lays with the task delivery and less with the personal needs of the subordinates. Effective leadership varies, not only with the person or group that is being influenced, but it also depends on the task, job, or function that needs to be accomplished.[3]. '", In order to make an effective cycle, a leader needs to motivate followers properly by adjusting their leadership style to the development level of the person. By understanding, recognizing and adapting to these factors, leaders will be able to influence their surroundings and followers much more successfully than if these factors are ignored. Situational management theory was developed over several stages. Hersey, P. and Blanchard, K.H. They are novice but enthusiastic. History of Situational Leadership® In 1969, Blanchard and Hersey developed Situational Leadership® Theory in their classic book Management of Organizational Behavior. Effective leaders need to be flexible, and must adapt themselves according to the situation. This is very much a ‘hands-off approach’ as the subordinate is perfectly able and willing to perform the tasks independently and with great responsibility. Their skills, knowledge, and ability will affect their delivery of a task independently of a leader’s guidance. In essence, the Vecchio findings suggest that in terms of situational leadership, it is appropriate to match a highly structured S1 style of leadership with immature subordinates, but it is not clear (incomplete research) whether it is appropriate to match S2, S3, or S4, respectively, with more mature subordinates. 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